Mobsters in America – Stephanie St Clair – The Queen of the Harlem Numbers Rackets

She was chased out of the Harlem numbers rackets by Dutch Schultz, but when Schultz lay dying from a bullet wound, Stephanie St. Clair had the last laugh.

Stephanie St. Clair was born in 1886, in Marseilles, an island in the East Caribbean. At the age of 26 she immigrated to New York City and settled in Harlem. Almost immediately, she hooked up with the Forty Thieves, a white gang who were in existence since the 1850’s. There is no record of what St. Clair did for the next ten years, but it’s safe to say, considering her ties to the Forty Thieves, a notorious shake-down gang, what she did was anything but legal.

In 1922, St. Clair used $10,000 of her own money and started Harlem’s first numbers rackets. St. Clair was known for having a violent temper and often cursed her underlings out in several languages. When people questioned her about her heritage, she snapped that she was born in “European France,” and that she spoke flawless French, unlike the French-speaking rabble from the Caribbean. In Harlem they called her Madame St. Clair, but in the rest of the city, she was known as just plain “Queenie.”

In the mid 1920’s, known bootlegger and stone killer Dutch Schultz decided he wanted to take over all the policy rackets in Harlem. Schultz did not ask Queenie to back away too nicely, resulting in the deaths of dozens of Queenie’s numbers runners. Queenie enlisted the help of Bumpy Johnson, an ex-con with a hair-trigger temper, to take care of the Schultz situation. Johnson went downtown and visited Italian mob boss Lucky Luciano. He asked Luciano to talk some sense into Schultz. But there was not much Luciano could do, since at the time, he was one of Schultz’ partners. Luciano suggested that Queenie and Johnson throw in with Schultz, making them, in effect, a sub-division of Schultz’s numbers business. This did not sit too well with Queenie, and even though Johnson tried to convince her this was the smart move, she turned down Luciano’s offer.

Then out of nowhere, Queenie began having trouble with the police, whom she was paying off to look the other way. This was the work of Schultz, who through his connections with Tammany Hall, had several politicians in his back pocket, as well half the police force in New York City. While Schultz’ number runners worked the streets of Harlem with impunity, Queenie’s runners, when they were not being killed by Schultz’ men, were being arrested by the police.

Queenie decided to fight back with the power of the press. In December 1930, Queenie took several ads in Harlem newspapers, accusing the police of graft, shakedowns and corruption. That did not go over too well with the local fuzz, and they immediately arrested Queenie for illegal gambling.Queenie was convicted and sentenced to eight months hard labor on Welfare Island. Upon her release, she appeared before the Seabury Committee, which was investigating graft in the Bronx and Manhattan Magistrates Courts. Queenie testified that from 1923-1926, she had paid the police in Harlem $6000 to protect her runners from arrest, and that the police had taken her money and arrested her number runners anyway. Schultz must have had a good laugh over that one, since $6000 was less than he paid monthly to keep the cops happy in New York City.

Nothing came from her testimony before the Seabury Committee, so Queenie decided to plead her case to New York City Mayor Jimmy Walker, who was almost as crooked as Schultz. Queenie told Walker that Schultz was pressuring her to join his gang, or else. Walker, who was being investigated by the Seabury Committee himself, answered Queenie by quitting his job as Mayor and relocating to Europe for the next few years.

Queenie then pleaded with the other black policy number bankers in Harlem to join forces with her in a battle against Schultz. Knowing that Schultz had too much juice in the government, and too many shooters in his gang, they turned her down flat.

Bumpy Johnson soon found out that Schultz had put the word out on the streets that Queenie was to be shot on sight. Queenie then went into hiding, refusing to even go outside to see the light of day. On one occasion, Johnson had to hide Queenie in a coal bin, under a mound of coal, to save her from Schultz’ men. That was the final straw for Queenie. She sent word to Schultz that she would agree to his demands. Schultz sent word back to her that she could remain alive, as long as she gave Schultz a majority share in her numbers rackets. Queenie reluctantly agreed.

Schultz had his own run of bad luck, when he demanded that Luciano and his pals agree to the killing of Special Prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey, who was breathing down Schultz’s neck. Schultz’ proposition was turned down, and when he said he would kill Dewey himself, he was shot in the stomach in the bathroom of a New Jersey restaurant. Schultz lingered in a delirious state in a hospital for a few days before he died. As he was laying there mumbling inanities, a telegram arrived saying, “As ye sow, so shall you reap.”

The telegram was sent by the Queen of Harlem — Stephanie St. Clair.

Queenie eventually turned over her rackets to Bumpy Johnson. She faded into obscurity and died in her sleep in 1969.

In the 1997 movie “Hoodlum,” Lawrence Fishburne played Bumpy Johnson, Tim Roth played Dutch Schultz, Andy Garcia played Lucky Luciano and Cicely Tyson played Stephanie “Queenie” St. Clair.

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History of Skincare Part 16: The Industrial Revolution, 1800-1849

The Face of the Industrial Revolution

When imagining the people who lived during the Industrial Revolution, it is easy to picture the characters from a Charles Dickens novel. It is easy to imagine cities filled with soot-faced Oliver Twists and David Copperfields. In some respects, this picture is accurate. The first half of the nineteenth century saw many major technological advances. The invention of the steam engine made manufacturing and transportation much easier and dozens of large factories sprung up within the span of a few years. New mining techniques were developed in order to produce the coal needed to power the new factories. Rural citizens, looking for work, began to migrate to major cities such as London and New York. The air was indeed filled with a Dickensian smog, but the Industrial Revolution also had a profound effect on skin care products and cosmetic use. As the average pay rose, an increasing number of ordinary citizens were finding themselves able to afford soaps and make-ups that had previously been far out of reach.

A Moral Dilemma

By the end of the eighteenth century, make-up had been deemed inappropriate for all but prostitutes and actors. While this attitude persisted throughout much of the nineteenth century, women were allowed a few cosmetic exceptions. Pale skin was still considered a mark of high birth and while the heavy lead powders of a century earlier were no longer used, they were replaced by a thin coating of zinc oxide. The zinc oxide offered the benefit of a lightened skin tone, but was more subtle and more natural looking than the caked on powder that had been so popular before. Subtle eyeshadow made from lampblack was also popular, although lip and cheek rouge remained taboo. While many women still mixed their own cosmetics, modern manufacturing techniques had made it much easier to mass produce these products. Although the use of manufactured cosmetics was extremely popular, however, it was not considered proper to buy or sell beauty products. Because of this, most stores sold them under the counter. **

In spite of the stigma that still surrounded skincare and cosmetic products, some women did speak out to promote their use. In 1833, Jacobine Weiler published a book titled, “Cosmetics of the Female Sex, or The Secret Art of Perfecting Beauty and Health and Retaining It into Old Age” that promoted cosmetic use as a beauty aid. While respectable women could not be seen buying lip or cheek rouge, numerous recipes were published describing methods for making lip pomade in the home. Recipes included common ingredients such as butter, wax and natural dies made from currants and the plant alkanna tictoria.***

For all the women who defended cosmetic use, however, there were many others who believed that wearing make-up was the first step toward a life of sin. Many books dedicated to the defamation of cosmetics were also published. “Godey’s Lady’s Book,” for example, was published around the middle of the century. It suggested that instead of trying to cover blemishes with make-up, women should rely solely on “moral cosmetics,” which included sleeping and avoiding sinful pastimes such as gambling and drinking.

Cleansing the Natural Way

As mass production methods were refined, the price of numerous hygiene products became less expensive and more readily available. While perfumed soaps had been considered a luxury item half a century earlier, soap was now commonplace in all but the poorest homes. Because women could no longer hide behind a thick layer of powder, there was a much stronger emphasis on naturally beautiful skin. Harsh cleansers were more easily produced as well, but they were often ignored in exchange for more natural skincare ingredients. Egg yolks, honey and oatmeal were all commonly used to soften the skin and help diminish blemishes. Lemon juice was sometimes used to naturally bleach the skin a few shades lighter. While naturally glowing health may have been the look of choice at the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, it would soon make way for the frail, sickly look of the Victorian Era.

References:

** Read more about nineteenth century make-up here: http://www.localhistories.org/cosmetics.html

*** Read more about the Industrial defenders of cosmetics here: http://www.cosmetic-business.com/en/showartikel.php?art_id=1409

Food Additives Exposed – What’s in Frozen Pizzas

Cheap Pizza

Ferrous Sulfate:

Is a waste product of steel after being washed with sulfuric acid. It was given to slaves in the 18th and 19th century to “cure” them of aliments. Many slaves died from this practice, its also used in Inks and Wool Dyes.

Ferrous Sulfate is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia, people after treatment felt nausea & epigrastric (Epigastric problems may cause tension with Asthma)

Mozzarella Cheese Subtitute:

Is made with (See hydrogenated oils) partially hydrogenated oils.

Sodium Aluminum Phosphate:

Autopsies on a large amount of people who have died of Alzheimer’s disease showed accumulations of up to four times the normal amount of aluminum in the nerve cells in the brain, especially in the hippo campus which plays a central role in memory. Also increased aluminum can cause low **reproduction development of the ovarian lesions.

Aluminum in the body can cause kidney damage this is because it can interfere with phosphate metabolism.

Things to look out for in Aluminum based products

Antacids (There is some without check the labels) Antidiarrheal Products (There is some without check labels)

Buffered Aspirin (Regular Aspirin does not have aluminum)

Containers (Aluminum coated waxed containers, used especially for orange and pineapple juices, causes juices inside to absorb aluminum. Beer and SOFT drinks that are stored in aluminum cans also absorb small quantities of aluminum. Bottled beverages are better.

Deodorants (Natural Deodorants do not add Aluminum) Douches (Natural Douches do not add aluminum you can also use vinegar and water)

Food Additives (Like The processed cheeses used on cheese burgers at fast food restaurants, which contain aluminum, which is added to make the cheese melt better. To self-rising dough and processed cheese food.)

Shampoos (Some add aluminum some don’t check labels to make sure)

Potassium Chloride:

The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. In its pure state it is odorless. It has a white or colorless vitreous crystal, with a crystal structure that cleaves easily in three directions. Potassium chloride crystals are face-centered cubic. Potassium chloride is also commonly known as “Muriate of Potash”.

Potash varies in color from pink or red to white depending on the mining and recovery process used. White potash, sometimes referred to as soluble potash, is usually higher in analysis and is used primarily for making liquid starter fertilizers. KCl is used in medicine, scientific applications, food processing and in judicial execution through lethal injection.

You can also find Potassium Chloride in waters as well, although Potassium Chloride is a used substance in the human body, consume it naturally!

From personal experience potassium chloride in my water caused irregular heart beat when I worked out, it also caused retained ear-pressure.

Sodium Benzoate:

Benzene in soft drinks (and food additives) has received some scrutiny because benzene is a carcinogen, or cancer-causing agent. Its levels are regulated in drinking water nationally and internationally, and in bottled water in the United

States, but only informally in soft drinks. Within recent years, some soft drinks have been found to contain high levels of benzene. Benzene contamination of soft drinks is a public health concern and has caused significant outcry among environmental and health advocates.

In combination with ascorbic acid (vitamin C, E300), sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate may form benzene, a known carcinogen. Heat, light and shelf life can affect the rate at which benzene is formed. Other factors that affect the formation of benzene are heat and light. Storing soft drinks in warm conditions speeds up the formation of benzene.

Sodium Phosphate:

Some foods contain phosphate but are not labeled as such (i.e. dehydrated onions). Other symptoms of phosphate intolerance may include severe and sudden diarrhea, vomiting, skin eruptions, bladder infection, bloating and abdominal cramping.

(common)

Phosphate additives have also been linked to ADD in children in Australia.

Retrieved from:

Wikipedia

Titanium Dioxide:

Used as a white food colouring it also acts as a pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, coatings, plastics, papers, inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets) as well as most toothpastes.

Its also used in sunscreens & if you are not aware most cases of skin cancer are formed from the Sunscreen we use in combination of not being able to absorb energy from the Sun which is very important, recently I heard there is more suicides in the winter because there is a lack of sunlight and the energy is like a anti-depressant so to say keeps your psychically and mentally healthy, so if you ingest Titanium Dioxide it could settle in your skin and you be putting on a shield against your Sun energy (which I believe is a certain vitamin D).

Magnesium Oxide:

May cause irritation in eyes or respiratory tract May lead to muscle weakness, lethargy and confusion. This is in its real form why would you want to eat this?

Sodium Nitrite:

Recently, sodium nitrite has been found to be an effective means to increase blood flow by dilating blood vessels, acting as a vasodilator. While this chemical will prevent the growth of bacteria, it can be toxic for mammals. A principal concern is the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines by the reaction of sodium nitrite with amino acids in the presence of heat in an acidic environment. Sodium nitrite has also been linked to triggering migraines.

Recent studies have found a link between high processed meat consumption and colon cancer, possibly due to preservatives such as sodium nitrite. On top of this I believe Sodium Nitrite acts as a catalyst (from the dilation is does to your veins) which aids in all these other nasty ingredients to hurry themselves through your body just like Cayenne pepper and other foods with sculville units in them (hotness).

BHA, BHT & TBHQ:

In high doses, it has some negative health effects on lab animals, such as precursors to stomach tumors and damage to DNA. A number of studies have shown that prolonged exposure to TBHQ may induce carcinogenicity. Other studies, however, have shown protective effects for TBHQ and other phenolic antioxidants.

BHA, BHT & TBHQ are petroleum based that’s why it keeps food preserved (it will preserve your body which is bad times).

Partially Hydrogenate Oils:

Trans fats are neither essential nor salubrious (useful) and, in fact, the consumption of trans fats increase one’s risk of coronary heart disease by raising levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of “good” HDL cholesterol. 1 gram of trans fat a day has been linked to a 33% higher chance of catching the coronary heart disease. A 6 piece of chicken nuggets has 6 grams of trans fat, fries have 4 grams of trans fat.

Its common name is monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat.

The human lipase enzyme is ineffective with the trans configuration, so trans fat remains in the blood stream for a much longer period of time and is more prone to arterial deposition and subsequent plaque formation. While the mechanisms through which trans fats contribute to coronary heart disease are fairly well understood, the mechanism for trans fat’s effect on diabetes is going to find that it increases symptoms.

Monocalcium Phosphate:

Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (also called mono-calcium orthophosphate) Ca(H2PO4)2 is a chemical compound. It is commonly found as the dihydrate, Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O, which releases a water molecule before it melts at 109 °C. It decomposes at 203 °C.

Phosphorus is an important nutrient and so is a common component of fertilizers Calcium dihydrogen phosphate is also used in the food industry as a leavening agent to cause baked goods to rise. Because it is acidic, when combined with an alkali ingredient – commonly sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or potassium bicarbonate

– it reacts to produce carbon dioxide and a salt.

Xanthan Gum:

(Allergy Warning)

Some people are allergic to xanthan gum, with symptoms of intestinal gripes and diarrhea. Workers exposed to xanthan gum dust exhibit nose and throat irritation as well as work-related illness, with symptoms becoming more prevalent with increasing exposure.

Also, since xanthan gum is produced by a bacterium that is fed corn to grow, some people allergic to corn will also react to it.

MSG/Natural Flavors:

The 1987 Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization placed mono sodium glutamate in the safest category of food ingredients.

A 1991 report by the European Community’s (EC) Scientific Committee for Foods reaffirmed mono sodium glutamate safety and classified its “acceptable daily intake” as “not specified”, the most favorable designation for a food ingredient. In addition, the EC Committee said, “Infants, including premature, have been shown to metabolize glutamate as efficiently as adults and therefore do not display any special susceptibility to elevated oral intakes of glutamate.”

A 1992 report from the Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association stated that glutamate in any form has not been shown to be a “significant health hazard”.

A 1995 FDA-commissioned report acknowledged that “An unknown percentage of the population may react to mono sodium glutamate and develop mono sodium glutamate symptom complex, a condition characterized by one or more of the following symptoms:

Burning sensation in the back of the neck, forearms and chest Numbness in the back of the neck, radiating to the arms and back Tingling, warmth and weakness in the face, temples, upper back, neck and arms Facial pressure or tightness,Chest pain, Headache, Nausea, Rapid heartbeat, Broncho spasm (difficulty breathing), Drowsiness, Weakness Sweating.

A 2002 report from researchers at Hirosaki University in Japan found rats fed on diets very high in glutamate (up to 20%) suffered eye damage. Lead researcher Hiroshi Ohguro said the findings might explain why, in eastern Asia, there is a high rate of normal-tension glaucoma.

Monosodium glutamate has been shown to indirectly cause obesity in lab rats by down regulating hypothalamic appetite suppression and, thus, increasing the amount of food the lab rats consumed Because glutamate is absorbed very quickly in the gastrointestinal tract (unlike glutamic acid-containing proteins in foods), glutamate could spike blood plasma levels of glutamate.

Glutamic acid is in a class of chemicals known as excitotoxins, high levels of which have been shown in animal studies to cause damage to areas of the brain unprotected by the blood-brain barrier and that a variety of chronic diseases can arise out of this neurotoxicity.

The debate among scientists on the significance of these findings has been raging since the early 1970s, when Dr. John Olney found that high levels of glutamic acid caused damage to the brains of infant mice.

Updated Information 04/02/09:

Keep in mind that the MSG/excitotoxins also contribute to addictive behaviors (gambling, overeating, violence, mood swings, depression, etc.) since the excitotoxins stimulate other hormones in the brain. when they’re stimulated, your dopamine and other hormone levels go haywire.

changing your diet is all it takes to snap out of it. its amazing how simple it is, but so many are hooked on junk food and processed foods.

Sorbitan monostearate (also known as Span 60):

Is an ester of sorbitan (a sorbitol derivative) and stearic acid and is sometimes referred to as a synthetic wax. It is primarily used for emulsifying water and oils together. Sorbitan monostearate is used in manufacture of food and health care products, and is a nonionic surfactant with emulsifying, dispersing, and wetting properties.

It is also employed to create synthetic fibers, metal machining fluid, brighteners in the leather industry, as an emulsifier in coatings, in pesticides, and various applications for the plastic, food and cosmetics industries.

Slang Terms for Coffee

The first questions about slang terms are where did they come from and how did they originate. Where they originated covers a wide spectrum of places. Some started by military groups during wars while others originated in both men’s and women’s prisons. Others originated in foreign countries, by college students or just groups of people who felt they needed another name for their cup of coffee. This even includes people who don’t drink coffee for its taste, but for the reaction they get when drinking coffee. Some words are more a description than slang. Of the hundreds of terms, those mentioned here a just a sampling.

Slang names that come from where the coffee is grown or made include Java and Cocoa Java from Java Island in Indonesia. Kaffee comes from Switzerland while a Manila comes from the Philippines. An Americano is regular coffee as brewed in America while the Kona comes from coffee grown and brewed on the Kona Coast of Hawaii. Kahwa, which is a French slang word for coffee, actually comes from the Egyptian language that is spoken in the Korcafa area near Ethiopia.

A Cup of Joe or Cup of Jo has three stories about where the term originated. Some say it came from the Stephen Foster song Old Black Joe. Another theory holds that the beverage was nicknamed after Admiral Josephus “Joe” Daniels, who was secretary of the U.S. Navy. Others say Joe was a term used by soldiers during World War II. Joe was used as a name of a person that was always around, but whose name was never really known yet someone always being there when needed. Thus, a Cup of Joe or Cup of Jo was a drink that was always available. It later expanded to a Cup of Joe Black, for black coffee and Mojo along with other related terms using joe or jo.

Arbuckles became a slang term that cowboys used for coffee. It was the brand name of the coffee used on the trail. An added comment here; Arbuckles was the cowboy coffee because it came in patented airtight one pound packages of beans in a sturdy wooden crate of 100 packages that kept the coffee fresh.

Some terms used in prisons include mud, muddy water, morning mud and caffeinne, purposely spelled incorrectly. WormDirt, Blue Bag, after a brand that comes in blue, and many other terms have or are being used including those that have sexy or pornographic connotations.

The words Cuppa and Brew came from England and meant a cup of tea. Cuppa, Brew and Cup of… have, over time, come to mean coffee. Other slang words are more definitive than slang. These words include day starter, caffeine fix, wakey juice, cup of jolt, bean juice, daily energy or liquid energy. French words Café au lait means coffee with milk while Café Noir means black coffee makes them quite descriptive. Daily grind is more a pun-like term while the word Crap has a number of meanings and is often used in gambling establishments.

Despite all the modern drinks, the list of slang terms continues to grow. Some of the more resent coffee slang words that have come into use include Rocket Fuel, which means strong coffee and C8H10N4O2, which is the formula for caffeine. Now that espressos are a must drink, some slang names for them are Regular brew, Red Eye for one shot of espresso, Black Eye for two shots and Glass Eye for three shots of pure espresso.